Junior Cert Science - Ionic Bonding

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   7      atoms      attract      eight      electrons      gas      ionic      magnesium      metal      negative      noble      oxygen      positive      protons      two   
Ionic bonding occurs between atoms and non-metal atoms. The metal atom transfers one or more to the other atom in the bond. Positive and ions are formed as a result. The atom that loses the electron(s) is called the positive ion because it now has more than electrons. The atom that gains the electron(s) is called the negative ion because its got more electrons than protons. In forming ions, the atoms usually achieve the electron configuration of the nearest gas. A group 1 metal will lose one electron, a group 2 metal will lose electrons to leave their outer shells complete. In doing so, the metal becomes a ion. A group 1 metal atom loses one electron to change into an ion of charge +1. The non-metals on the right hand side of the Periodic Table need to gain electrons in order to completely fill their outer shells. Oxygen in group 6 needs two electrons in order to achieve the nearest noble configuration. An oxygen atom will then gain two electrons to change into an oxygen ion of charge -2. If one atom loses an electron, then the other atom gains an electron e.g. sodium in group 1 will lose an electron to chlorine in group . The sodium atom becomes an ion of charge +1, while the chlorine atom becomes a chloride ion of charge -1. These ions of opposite charge will now each other. This attractive force is called an bond. In the reaction between magnesium (electronic configuration 2,8,2) and oxygen (electronic configuration 2,6), the atom loses two electrons to form the magnesium ion of charge +2 (electronic configuration 2,8). The atom gains two electrons to form the oxide ion of charge -2 (electronic configuration 2,8). Both ions now have a complete outer shell arrangement of electrons. The ions are now more stable than their .