Junior Cert Science - Periodic Table Quiz 1

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The Periodic Table is of great importance to scientists. It is sometimes called "the Chemist's Compass". Instead of learning the chemical of more than 100 , it is easier to study the properties of a small number of groups of elements. All the elements in one will have one thing in common i.e. they will all have the same number of in their outer shell. The first group in the Periodic Table is called Group I or the Alkali . This consists of elements whose atoms have just one electron in their outer . The number of electrons in this part of the atom determines the chemical properties of the element. Thus all of the elements of Group I will have similar chemical properties. Each of the Alkali Metals will react with water to produce gas. They react easily with oxygen to form an oxide of that metal e.g. sodium reacts with to form sodium oxide. They react very vigorously with hydrochloric acid to form a and hydrogen gas. They are stored under , otherwise they would quickly react with the air around them. Their reactivity increases as you go down the group, lithium being the least reactive and being the most reactive. The elements in Group II are called the Alkaline Earth metals. These elements have electrons in their outer shell and their chemical properties are all similar. The Alkaline Earth metals are not as reactive as the Alkali metals. They react with water to form an oxide (e.g. MgO) and hydrogen gas. They also react with oxygen in the air to form an e.g. CaO. The Alkali metals will also react with hydrochloric acid to form a salt and hydrogen gas.