Hard Water

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Hardness in water is caused by dissolved calcium ions and ions.
It can cause in pipes, kettles, shower heads etc.
These ions can get into the water when it comes into contact with and other rocks that contain calcium compounds.
This can happen when flows over these rocks on its way to a reservoir.
Hardness can make it more difficult for the water to form a with soap.
Temporary hardness is caused by dissolved calcium . This is removed by .
Permanent hardness is caused by dissolved calcium . This is not removed by boiling.
Water can be softened using washing or an ion-exchange resin.